We are familiar with diabetes type 1 and type 2 in adults. Now scientists have discovered five subcategories of adult diabetes. This is an advanced classification. This classification will help us get precise treatment for the precise type of diabetes. This means that we can get personalized treatment for each category. This will make management of diabetes easier. It will also help to identify risk factors for the disease.
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Many people have become diabetic. It has become a great issue. Statistically, diabetes has affected around 425 million people worldwide.
Diabetes type-2 occurs in 95% of the total cases. However, management of this type varies. This variation is justified with this discovery.
Professor Leif Groop from Lund University Diabetes Centre (LUDC) and University of Helsinki is the lead author of the research. He says that diabetes is hard to manage. It is because it is diverse. People cannot stick to a certain therapy. Everyone shows different symptoms. We had to look for a deeper clue on why it is so.
The scientists were able to find the answer. They discovered five subtypes. These types are different from the previous classifications. These subtypes are based on six measurements. The difference in range in these measurements decide the subtype. These measurements are age at diagnosis, body mass index, long-term glycemic control, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, and presence of autoantibodies associated with autoimmune diabetes.
We only considered taking blood glucose tests for diabetes. Now we have to look for other factors as well. These factors will help us decide which treatment will help us.
These five subtypes are different from each other. They show different genetic makeup. They also show different signs and symptoms.
ANDIS is a study conducted on newly diagnosed diabetics. This study is going on in Sweden and Finland. Almost 15,000 diabetics participated in the study. This research of finding new diabetes types was made possible due to ANDIS study. It is an international research-based study.
Department head Tiinamaija Tuomi from the Helsinki University Central Hospital is one of the leading authors of this research. He says that this discovery is beneficial to all diabetics. Diabetics with severe symptoms will get the most benefit from the research.
The new classification is as under:
- SAID (severe autoimmune diabetes): It occurs at a young age. There is poor metabolism. Insulin is not produced normally. There are abnormal antibodies. It is more related to diabetes type 1 and autoimmune diabetes.
- SIDD (severe insulin-deficient diabetes): It usually occurs in adults. Eye disorders are common in this type. Insulin is not produced normally. A specific blood glucose test called HbA1c is not normal in this type.
- SIRD (severe insulin-resistant diabetes): There is kidney damage in this type. There is obesity. Insulin does not work at all in this type.
- MOD (mild obesity-related diabetes): It occurs at a younger age. Patients are obese.
- MARD (mild age-related diabetes): It occurs at an elderly age. It is the largest group with 40% of people getting affected.